joi, 6 martie 2014

Tehnici anti-ponderale

Pages, Marcel J. J.
Text: "Gravitation antiponderale - Effet Magnus electromagnetique."
The Magnus effect is described in terms of the Archimedes principle and applied to a gravitational field. The theoretical possibilities of an anti-gravity device are explored and an 1892 electrostatic experiment is quoted. Revue Francaise d'Astronautique. Organe de la Francaise d'Astronautique (Paris). Nauvelle serie, no. 1967-3, Juillet 1967. p. 5-10.
See Also: Magnus effect, antigravity, propulsion, anomalous phenomena, gravitation, foundations of physics, electrostatic scalar potential.

Dr. Marcel Pages

In 1959, Dr. Marcel Pages proposed a theory at the International Congress of Satellites and Missiles, wherein gravity is not caused by the attraction of the Earth, but is caused by the repulsion of the Cosmos. Accordingly, the force which we call gravitation, he called 'sheer concentrated protonic energy'.

He supported his theory with a design of an antigravity machine which liberated itself from the force of gravity by an electric field rotating at the speed of light around the vehicle. This rotating field also suppressed mass inertia!

His design principle was tested successfully on small pieces of mica.

Marcel Pages was one of the leading French post-war researchers in this field. In French patent 1,253,902 Pages postulated that a rotating electric current would produce an anti-gravitational effect. This current was produced by a circulating beam of electrons held in a toroidal vacuum tube. Dr Jaegu Kim presented experimental confirmation of this in 1994 in a paper in the Journal of the Korean Physical Society.,Dokumentenarchiv/30,Wissenswertes/Hassel_Future_Physics_and_Anti-Gravity.pdf


Future Physics and Antigravity

[ Excerpt ]

A remarkable anti-gravity effect was observed by Marcel Pages using the experimental arrangement shown in Figure 7 (17). Two discs of mica of 14 cm diameter, each having a conducting surface of metal foil, were mounted on the ends of a 14 cm mandrel. The assembly was supported in equilibrium on a beam balance. When the two discs were charged oppositely by means of a Wimshurst electrostatic generator, there was a sudden elevation of the disc assembly. After two minutes the charge would dissipate and the discs would return to a balances position. For an applied voltage of 200 kV the observed loss in weight was 5 grams. One might at first suspect the weight loss to be due to the electrostatic field of the earth, which has an upper limit near the earth's surface in clear weather of 550 V/m. At maximum charge the force on one disc due to the earth's maximum field would have been only one gram. However, the two discs were oppositely charged, so the upward and downward forces should have balanced. Besides, when both discs were given the same charge, positive or negative, there was an apparent increase in weight due to the electrostatic attraction with the framework of the balance. Therefore, it was concluded that a new field effect of unknown origin has been observed. Other experiments with a high voltage alternating field also demonstrated a loss of weight.

Later experiments were performed with a single mica disc which rotated at a high rate when subjected to the high voltage of a Wimshurst machine, even to the point of lifting off its support when subjected to 300 kV (18). Pages attributes the greater anti-gravity effect for the rotating disc to the rotational motion of the electric charge.

Pages theory of gravitation assumes the existence of a graviton gas which permeates space, where gravitons are discrete energy packets of gravitational waves, postulated by Dirac. The protons and electrons of the atoms are bathed in this graviton gas. The weight of each particle is diminished by the weight of the graviton gas it displaces. When the electron is orbiting about the proton, as in a hydrogen atom, a cavitation effect is produced by electron, which in effect gives it a larger effective volume and thereby reduces its effective weight. As justification for this hypothesis he notes that the mass of an atom of any element is less than the sum of the masses of the individual particles comprising the atom. (This mass deficit in physical theory is attributed to a transformation of mass into the electrostatic and magnetic energy of the atomic nucleus.) The mass deficit for nickel, for example, is obtained as follows:

Composition: 28 protons + 28 electrons
+ 30 neutrons
Atomic Weight, A.W. = 57.959 kg / kmol
Mass of proton, mp = 1.67252 x 10-27 kg
Mass of electron, me = 9.1091 x 10-31 kg
Mass of neutron, mn = 1.67482 x 10–27 kg
Atom per kmol, NA = 6.02252 x 1026

Synthesizing a kilogram mole of nickel from its component parts, the mass deficit is seen to be (28mp + 28me + 30mn) NA - A.W. = 0.520 kg

The mass deficit is said to be due to the displacement of the graviton gas. Accordingly to M.M. Doligez, in his book, "Gravitation", the theoretical mass of the graviton is 10-60 to 10-80 gram. But the graviton energy density, according to de Broglie, Bohn and Wigner, is 1027 joules per cubic centimeter, which, converted to an equivalent mass, is ten million tons per cubic centimeter. The graviton gas seems to have the properties of a superfluid, as it offers no resistance to motion. As the electron orbits about the nucleus of the atom at a velocity of about 200 km/s, only a slight amount of cavitation could result in an appreciable change in effective mass. Thus, Pages accounts for antigravity by a reduction in the effective mass through displacement of the graviton gas, just as the effective weight of a helium balloon is reduced by increasing its size, thereby increasing the displacement of air.

Pages has obtained French Patent No. 1,253,902 (19) on an "Engine for Cosmic Flight" which has the shape of a lenticular UFO. It contains a toroidal acceleration chamber which would have to provide a 3000 ampere electron flow at a velocity of 2.9 x 10 m/s (97 % of light velocity) in a magnetic field of 0.4 T (4000 gauss) in order to counteract the gravitational attraction for a mass of 1000 kg.